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Parker,
Kono
5/14
Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels
Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

Gordon,
Lubliner
4/14
Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public
Housing in the Pacific Northwest

This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

Martin,
Beal
3/14
Technical and Business Solutions for Zero Net-Energy Ready and Zero Net-Energy Homes in the Hot Humid Climate
The Department of Energy’s Challenge Home program provides a standardized platform for application and marketing of Building America innovations in new residential construction and is intended to facilitate delivery of zero net-energy ready and zero net-energy homes that also meet goals for durability, quality, affordability, and comfort. The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, one of the Building America research team leads, has partnered with several builders in the hot-humid climate, as they work through the process of adopting Challenge Home. This paper serves to identify viable technical pathways to meeting the Challenge Home criteria in this region and illustrate market response to high performance housing.

Gordon
2/14
Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit
In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions:
1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software?
2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis?
3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

Martin
1/14
Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control
The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented.

McIlvaine,
Sutherland
12/13
Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs
BA-PIRC worked together in a multiyear field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15%-30% and higher. This report describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the "current best practices".

Hewes,
Peeks
11/13
Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development
The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home.
This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

Gordon, Lubliner
10/13
Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest
This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

Vieira,
Parker
9/13
Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels
Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15°F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

McIlvaine,
Sutherland
9/13
Current Best Practices for High Performance, Deep Energy Retrofits in Florida Affordable Housing
In a four year study of 70 major renovations in foreclosed homes (NSP homes), researchers provided energy analysis and cost effectiveness calculations to 10 affordable housing entities. Partners chose an improvement package for each house based as-found conditions, budget constraints, central Florida market conditions, energy use analysis, and cost effectiveness calculations. Their collective choices and field experience are distilled into this checklist, a tool to simplify development of efficiency packages without the in-depth evaluation. Health and safety, building durability, and moisture control precautions and strategies are included. BA-PIRC is actively seeking partners who are interested in implementing the recommendations in projects involving 5 or more major renovations. Contact Janet McIlvaine at 321-638-1434.

Moore
8/13
Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4
Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions.

Lyons,
Moore
8/13
Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed-Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit
Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. 

McIlvaine, Saunders
7/13
The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits
The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

Kosar
5/13
Laboratory Evaluation of Energy Recovery Ventilators
ERV balanced flow operation is well documented, but there is not public domain information available that empirically establishes the effect of unbalanced flow on sensible and latent exchange, especially in the now dominant membrane type ERV used in residential applications. This laboratory evaluation focused on unbalanced flow performance of a membrane type ERV delivering 200 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) of supply air. The dataset generated yielded a limited set of curve fit algorithms for unbalanced flow performance that can be used to supplement current modeling approaches in simulation tools like EnergyPlus. Building America BA teams can then utilize such models to analyze whole house effects and determine best practices associated with unbalanced ERV operations.

Chasar,
Martin
4/13
Efficient Multifamily Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate by Atlantic Housing Partners
With assistance from the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and its Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Atlantic Housing Partners has implemented a high performance, systems engineered package of measures. This report demonstrates how the initiative achieves Building America goals of 30%-50% energy savings. Specifically, the goals are documented as being achieved in the new construction multifamily housing sector in the hot humid climate. Results from energy modeling of the high performance package are presented. The role of utility allowance calculations, used as part of the low-income housing tax credit process, to value those energy savings is discussed, as is customer satisfaction with heat pump water heaters.

Thomas-Rees,
Beal
3/13
Approaches to 30% Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate
BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the BA Program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. The scope of this report is to demonstrate achievement of these goals though the documentation of production-scale homes built cost-effectively at the community scale, and modeled to reduce whole-house energy use by 30% in the Hot Humid climate region.

McIlvaine,
Sutherland
3/13
Energy Retrofit Field Study and Best Practices in a Hot-Humid Climate
Energy efficiency improvement as a component of comprehensive renovation was investigated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC). Researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) worked with affordable housing partners renovating foreclosed homes built from the 1950's through the 2000's in the hot-humid climate (within the Southern census region), primarily in Florida. Researchers targeted a 30% improvement in whole-house energy efficiency along with the health and safety, durability, and comfort guidelines outlined in DOE's Builders Challenge Program (Version 1) Quality Criteria.

Kingston,
Scott
3/13
Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating
Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. These emerging combo technologies offer the opportunity to conduct meaningful tests, under controlled laboratory operations, that differentiate the performance of the various packaged equipment configurations being offered. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads.

Colon,
Parker
3/13
Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2010 - 2011 Evaluation
The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) continues the testing and evaluation of seven water heating systems operating side-by-side at the HWS laboratory in Cocoa, Florida, and documents results in this report. All systems are submitted to alternating hot water draw schedules (ASHRAE 90.1 and NREL/BA). The most significant system change under the latest testing rotation comes from the evaluation of a new state-of-the-art electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) system. The HPWH water heater has demonstrated that under favorable ambient conditions it can perform very well against the best system evaluated in Phase I (2009-2010), the differentially controlled solar flat plate solar system.

Hales
3/13
Hood River Passive House
The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

Hewes,
Peeks
2/13
Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development
The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power
Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works, the current Northwest Energy Efficient
Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, collaborated to conduct research on new
specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. The team also
evaluated energy savings that would result from the new specifications. In its role as
administrator, NEEM administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering
analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a
central database with home tracking.

Chasar,
Withers
2/13
Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home
The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to yield detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data gave feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes 2 years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home, covered in a separate report (Parker and Sherwin 2012), is a deep energy retrofit that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic system and extensive envelope improvements.

Sutherland,
Martin
2/13
Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate
This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented.

Lyons
1/13
Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Deep Energy Efficiency Retrofit
Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

Gordon,
Howard
12/12
Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results
This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

Kerr,
Tondro
12/12
Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas
Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

Fairey,
Parker
11/12
Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States
This analytical study examined the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed before 1980 (Pre-Code) in 14 U.S. cities. These cities represent each International Energy Conservation Code climate zone in the contiguous United States. The analysis was conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that was programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a long list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures.

Chasar,
von Schramm
9/12
Measured Performance of Occupied, Side-by-Side, South Texas Homes
The performance of three occupied homes built in 2009 in San Antonio, Texas with identical floor plans and orientation were evaluated through a partnership between the Florida Solar Energy Center, CPS Energy, and Woodside Homes of South Texas. The goals of this research were to: (1) learn how energy systems affect peak load profiles during the hottest weather conditions; (2) inform the development of builder and homeowner incentive programs that manage demand and energy consumption; and (3) measure cooling energy use to determine savings from envelope and equipment improvements.

Parker,
Sherwin
2/12
(revised 10/12)

Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data
This study summarizes the first full year of detailed data collected about a single-family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data about how envelope modifications in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and domestic hot water and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Using utility billing records and recent detailed monitoring data, this study was also able to chronicle the progress of energy reduction over a 23-year period.

Cummings, Withers
2/12
(revised 10/12)
Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Airflow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes
Air and water vapor are transported into and within single-family homes as a result of pathways and driving forces. Without pathways, no air or water vapor transport could occur. Likewise, without driving forces, little or no air or water vapor transport will occur. Homes always have pathways and driving forces. This report focuses on managing the driving forces that move air and water vapor across the building envelope.

Cummings,
Withers
12/11
Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems (pdf)
Experiments were run in an unoccupied 1600 ft2 house—the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)— to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

Beal,
McIlvaine
11/11
Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts (pdf)
This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home’s thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work.

Colon
5/11

New Construction Builders Challenge: Sealed Attic and High Efficiency HVAC in Central Florida: A Year in Review (pdf)
This article reviews a year’s worth of data on a builders challenge model home in Central Florida with high efficiency HVAC equipment, shingle roof and sealed attic configuration. Data from the unvented attic space, which features open cell sprayed foam roof deck insulation, is described along with analysis of humidity levels findings. 


Glanville,
Kosar
3/11
Efficient Hot Water and Distribution Systems (HWDS) Research Task Report (pdf)
Recent energy conservation standards rulemaking by DOE will essentially require that all
electric storage water heaters above 55 gallons utilize heat pump technology to meet NAECA
minimum efficiency levels to be implemented in 2015. The three integrated heat pump water heaters tested in this study represent the current domestic offerings by major manufacturers and are the only current class of electric ENERGY STAR residential water heaters.

Sherwin,
Colon,
12/10
Performance of Four Near Zero Energy Homes: Lessons Learned (pdf)
While the idea of a zero or near zero energy home is well understood, the actual performance of the structure can be different than expected. High performance homes necessitate increasingly complex envelope, HVAC, water heating, and appliance systems, and successful designs rely on proper function and feedback from those systems to achieve low-energy goals. This paper presents measured data on four near zero energy homes located in Florida that are a part of the U.S. DOE Building America program. The monitored data are compared to both a benchmark model and the prototype computer simulations.

Chasar,
vonSchramm
12/10
Measured Performance of Side-by-Side South Texas Homes (pdf)
As part of the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), CPS Energy, and Woodside Homes of South Texas collaborated to evaluate the performance of three homes in San Antonio, Texas with identical ~2,000 ft2 floor plans and orientation. Measurements included whole house gas and electric use as well as heating, cooling, hot water, major appliances, and indoor and outdoor conditions. One home built to builder standard practice served as the control, while the other homes demonstrated high performance features. These dual-fuel homes provided utility peak electric load comparisons to assess the merit of envelope and equipment improvements.

Fonorow,
Thomas-Rees
10/10
Low Cost Interior Duct Systems for High Performance Homes in Hot Climates (pdf)
The use of a passive return air strategy eliminates return air ducting in the attic. The elimination of this source of induced infiltration leads to improved indoor air quality (IAQ) and reduces material and labor costs. While the advantages of well designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. Homes in hot climates are still typically designed and built with duct systems in the attic. This paper presents a cost effective method that was used by four builders in the Gainesville, FL area to construct interior ducts in over a dozen site built homes.

Withers, Cummings
09/10
Opportunities for Energy Conservation and Improved Comfort From Wind Washing Retrofits in Two-Story Homes - Part I (pdf)
The primary focus of this paper is towards a specific type of wind washing where wind can push attic air into the floor cavity between first and second stories of the home through ineffective (or missing) air barriers separating attic space from the floor cavity. Through the summer of 2009, a field study tested thirty-two two-story homes and found significant wind washing potential in 40% of the homes. Part I of this paper highlights the evaluation methods used and the extent of wind washing found in this study.

Withers, Cummings
09/10

Opportunities for Energy Conservation and Improved Comfort From Wind Washing Retrofits in Two-Story Homes - Part II (pdf)
The primary focus of this paper is towards a specific type of wind washing where wind can push attic air into the floor cavity between first and second stories of the home through ineffective (or missing) air barriers separating attic space from the floor cavity. Through the summer of 2009, a field study tested thirty-two two-story homes and found significant wind washing potential in 40% of the homes. Part II highlights the results of repairs and energy monitoring that were completed in six of the homes to evaluate retrofit methods and cost effectiveness of retrofit solutions.

McIlvaine,
Beal,
08/10
Gulf Coast High Performance Affordable Housing Demonstration Project (pdf)
In 2007 and 2008, the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership worked with five partners in region of the Gulf Coast recovering from Hurricane Katrina. The High Performance Affordable Housing Demonstration Home was conceived to give builders in the region a cost-effective model of high performance to emulate. This report summarizes the status of work with the five partners, including the proposed energy efficiency package to reach the goal of 30% whole house energy source savings calculated under the 2008 Building America Benchmarking Procedure, standard construction practices, and implementation challenges. Four Demonstration houses were completed in 2008. Three met the 30% savings goal.

Parker,
Hoak,
08/10
Pilot Evaluation of Energy Savings and Persistence from Residential Energy Demand Feedback Devices in a Hot Climate (pdf)
According to past studies, providing instantaneous feedback on household electrical demand has shown the promise to typically reduce energy consumption by 5-10%. This paper briefly reviews past research and describes a two year pilot evaluation of a low cost residential energy feedback system installed in twenty case study homes in Florida.

McIlvaine, Sutherland, 08/10
Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate (pdf)
A Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

Cummings, Parker,
07/10
Evaluation of Bias Issues within Regression-Based Inverse Modeling Methods Against Climate and Building Characteristics Using Synthetic Data (pdf)
In 2006, researchers from Building America evaluated several homes using a least-squares regression technique on monitored data from these homes.  The researchers compared the performance of low-energy homes working towards the Building America goal of 70% whole-house efficiency to homes built to minimum code requirements.  This paper seeks to evaluate the accuracy of the regression technique used in 2006 by using the same least-squares regression analysis on data created from hourly energy simulation software.

Colon,
Parker
06/10
Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from 2009-2010 Testing (pdf)
The Hot Water System (HWS) Laboratory test facility at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cocoa, FL was used for testing seven differing types of residential water heating systems. The HWS building provides unconditioned housing (similar to a garage in Florida) for one reference electric 50-gallon heater, three solar thermal electric assisted systems, one electric tankless system, one reference 40-gallon natural gas (NG) and tankless gas system. The performance of all seven systems has been compared in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period.

Parker,
Fairey,
01/10
Updated Miscellaneous Electricity Loads and Appliance Energy Usage Profiles for Use in Home Energy Ratings, the Building America Benchmark Procedures and Related Calculations (pdf - 4.1MB)
This report addresses the ever increasing percentage of whole house energy use that is attributable to miscellaneous electricity loads and major appliances. The report makes recommendations for revising the reference standards that are in current use and provides mechanisms for expanding the number and types of lighting and major appliances that are considered to be rated features of a home. The report also provides a section on the potential of energy feedback devices and home energy management systems to reduce home energy use.

Parker,
Sherwin,
12/09
NightCool: Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept Long Term Performance Evaluation (pdf)
This report describes the experimentally evaluated potential of a novel residential night
cooling concept. NightCool uses a home's metal roof under a sealed attic as a large radiator to the
night sky to provide nocturnal cooling. Data are provided for two full cooling seasons.

Cummings,
Withers,
12/09

Investigating Solutions to Wind Washing Issues in 2-Story Florida Homes; Phase 1 (pdf)
Wind washing has been identified as a potentially significant issue regarding energy,
demand, comfort, and humidity in some two-story Florida homes. The primary goal is to
characterize methods and cost-effectiveness of retrofit solutions. Secondary goals are to
determine how wide-spread these envelope thermal problems are, identify the failure
mechanisms, develop new-construction and retrofit solutions, recommend code modifications,
and identify the energy savings potential from retrofit programs.

Parker,
Cummings,
8/09
Comparison of the ENERGYGAUGE USA and BEoptBuilding Energy Simulation Programs (pdf)
Two hourly energy simulation software, BEopt and Energy Gauge USA, were compared to
ensure accuracy and evaluate agreement on the impact of various energy efficiency
improvements.

Fairey
4/09
Interim Report on ISO TC163 Working Group 3 (pdf)
This report covers the initial year efforts of the International Standards Organization (ISO) to develop international standards for rating the energy performance of buildings. The author of this report is a participant in this effort. This report summarizes the activities of the ISO Working Group charged with development of these standards and makes recommendations to the sponsors for future U.S. involvement in this ISO effort.

Lubliner,
Fuess,
2/09
Zelonedom Case Study Report: “Approaching” Zero Energy in the Pacific Northwest Marine Climate (pdf)
The Zelonedom is a 2400 ft2 custom single story two bedroom home in Olympia, WA. "Zelonedom" is phonetic spelling for the Polish term 'green home'. This paper presents modeled and measured overall home energy performance, and an evaluation of the innovative energy saving and PV systems.

Martin,
Parker,
2/09
Preliminary Performance Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Callaway, Florida (pdf)
This report presents a performance summary of a Near Zero Energy Home in Callaway, FL.  The design of the home is briefly reviewed, and the first four months of monitored data are analyzed.

Parker,
Sherwin,
2/09
Preliminary Performance Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Gainesville, Florida (pdf)
This report presents a performance summary of a Near Zero Energy Home in Gainesville, FL.  The design of the home is briefly reviewed, and the first six months of monitored data are analyzed.

Vieira,
Parker,
12/08
Energy Impacts of Various Residential Mechanical Ventilation Strategies (pdf)
The Building America program has been working with home builders for more than a decade
using a variety of strategies for bringing fresh air into the homes. Many of these strategies utilize the central air handler fan from the HVAC system to ventilate when the system runs. This paper presents simulation results for eight ventilation strategies compared to no ventilation, and it presents the changes in energy use for each.

Moyer,
Stroer,
12/08
Research Results from A Few Alternate Methods of Interior Duct Systems in Factory Built Housing Located In the Hot Humid Climate
The U.S. Department of Energy's BAIHP has collaborated with two of its industry partners to work on a portion of the project that relates to the construction and evaluation of prototype interior duct systems. The initial results of this work show approximately a 10% to 20% heating/cooling savings when compared to conventional attic duct work construction techniques and nearly 7% savings when compared to a conventional in-floor system.

Thomas-Rees,
Chasar,
12/08
Green and High Performance Factory Crafted Housing (pdf)
As part of BAIHP we have assisted in the design and construction of several “green” and high performance modular homes that Palm Harbor Homes, Florida Division has built for the
IBS in 2006, 2007, and 2008. This paper will summarize the design features and the “green” and energy-efficient certification processes conducted for the 2008 show homes, one of which received the very first E-Scale produced by BAIHP for the U.S. DOE Builders Challenge program.

Chandra,
Parker,
12/08
An Overview of Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP) Activities in Hot-Humid Climates (pdf)
BAIHP conducts systems research and technical assistance activities for new housing. Hot-humid climate efforts are described in this paper.

Parker,
08/08
Very Low Energy Homes in the United States: Perspectives on Performance from Measured Data (pdf)
We present measured annual performance data from a dozen recent-vintage very low energy homes in North America. Many of the designs combine greater energy efficiency with solar electric photovoltaic power in an attempt to create Zero Energy Homes. We also provide measured data from the first home constructed to the German Passivhaus standard in the United States. Several projects either exceeded or come very close to true net zero energy when evaluated over a year.

Parker,
Sherwin,
8/08

NightCool: A Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept (pdf)
An experimental evaluation has been conducted on a night sky cooling system designed to substantially reduce space cooling needs in homes in North American climates. The system uses a sealed attic covered by a highly conductive metal roof (a roof integrated radiator).

Hoak,
Parker,
8/08
How Energy Efficient are Modern Dishwashers? (pdf)
This paper presents measurements of three recent vintage dishwashers of very different efficiencies showing that while they are substantially more efficient than older dishwashers, those tested will still use electric resistance elements for supplemental heat, even when supplied by solar water heating systems producing very hot water.

Parker,
Sherwin,
3/08
Evaluation of the NightCool Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept: Annual Performance Assessment in Scale Test Buildings, Stage Gate 1B (pdf)
An experimental evaluation has been conducted on a night sky cooling system designed to
substantially reduce space cooling needs in homes in North American climates.

Thomas-Rees,
Chasar,
1/08
Using Show Homes (and Sponsorships) to Persuade Commissioning Relevancy and Factory Crafted High Performance Modular Homes (pdf)
The International Builders’ Show (IBS) sponsored by the National Association of Home Builders is a venue attracting over 100,000 builders and building related professionals every year.  The increased attendances each year improves the educational sessions, vendor participation and “live” home construction demonstrations.

Parker,
Hoak,
1/08
Pilot Evaluation of Energy Savings from Residential Energy Demand Feedback Devices (pdf)
This paper briefly reviews past research and describes a two year pilot evaluation of a low cost residential energy feedback system installed in twenty case study homes in Florida. Although not a statistical sample, the study showed an average 7% reduction in energy use from feedback homes in the second year of monitoring after controlling for weather-related influences.

Moyer,
12/07
Improved Duct Systems Task Report with StageGate 2 Analysis (pdf)
BAIHP worked with two industry partners, Cavalier Homes and Southern Energy Homes, in constructing and evaluating prototype interior duct systems. Issues of energy performance, comfort, DAPIA approval, manufacturability and cost will be addressed. A stage gate 2 analysis will address the current status of project showing that there are still refinements needed to the process of incorporating all of the ducts within the air and thermal boundaries of the envelope.

Fonorow,
Chandra,
11/07
Commissioning High Performance Residences in Hot, Humid Climates (pdf)
This paper summarizes the experiences to date with two production builders,G.W. Robinson and Tommy Williams Homes, who have cost shared with the Building America program to deliver these outstanding results.

Lubliner,
Hadley,
06/07
Zero-Energy Manufactured Home
The Zero-Energy Manufactured Home (ZEMH) program demonstrates, evaluates, and promotes innovative energy-saving technologies for use in HUD-Code housing. www.homeenergy.org

Parker,
Sherwin,
01/07
Experimental Evaluation of the NightCool Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept: Performance Assessment in Scale Test Buildings
An evaluation has been conducted on a night sky cooling system that uses a sealed attic covered by a highly conductive metal roof which is selectively linked by air flow to provide cooling– largely during nighttime hours.

09/06
Zero Energy Manufactured Home Project (ZEMH) Deliverable for task 1.2 Side by Side tests of HUD code Homes
The Zero Energy Manufactured Home Project has demonstrated and promoted innovative energy saving technologies to the manufactured housing industry and home buying public, and evaluated those technologies’ energy performance. The ZEMH project examined two 1600 ft2 double section manufactured homes, built by the same manufacturer, using an identical floor plan. Both homes were built by Kit Manufacturing in the summer of 2002 and installed by Clearwater Homes for housing staff working at the newly built Nez Perce tribal fish facility.

Vieira,
Gu,
09/06
Improving the Accuracy and Speed for Building America Benchmarking
The Building America Benchmarking process is time consuming.  One must first enter the parameters of the prototype home design into the Building America Spreadsheet tool to create the parameters of the Building America benchmark home and then use detailed software products to simulate both the benchmark home and the prototype home and then enter the results from these simulations into the spreadsheet to determine the resulting % improvement for the prototype.

Chasar,
Moyer,
09/06
Energy Efficient Renovations of Storm Damaged Residences - Florida Case Studies
This study documents the energy impact of retrofit options performed on four Central Florida homes suffering damage from hurricanes in the summer of 2004. Case studies are presented to show the costs and benefits of various retrofit strategies, including the potential to enhance comfort and durability. Results are based on pre- and post-retrofit home performance testing as well as analysis of simulated and actual energy savings.

Fairey,
Colon,
09/06
Comparing Apples, Oranges and Grapefruit: An Analysis of Current Building Energy Analysis Standards for Building America, Home Energy Ratings and 2006 International Energy Conservation Code
The overall purpose of the work presented in this report is to determine the relationship, if any, between the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Benchmarking Analysis methods and the energy-efficiency analysis methods used by the International Energy Conservation Code and the Residential Energy Services Network and the Home Energy Rating Systems industry for similar purposes. The IECC allows code compliance through a performance-based comparative analysis method and the HERS industry uses very similar standards and methods to determine a relative measure of energy-efficiency performance called the HERS Index.

Beal,
McIlvaine
08/06
Energy and Indoor Air Quality Recommendations for Cold Climate Habitat for Humanity Homes
During June 2005, BAIHP researchers visited six Habitat for Humanity affiliates in Michigan participating in the 2005 Jimmy Carter Work Project and HFHIs Congress Building America program. Energy analysis results, indoor air quality recommendations, and cold-climate best practices are provided in this report written for Habitat affiliates and the Michigan Habitat for Humanity state organizations energy incentives program.

Mullens,
Hoekstra,
08/06
Water Intrusion in Central Florida Homes During Hurricane Jeanne in September 2004
In September 2004 Hurricane Jeanne struck Florida. Most of the damage in the Orlando and surrounding central Florida area resulted from severe water intrusion. The local Home Builders Association received over 1,000 complaints from new home owners involving water intrusion. The water intrusion was perplexing for several reasons. First, most complaints were from residents of newer homes. Second, in many cases there were no obvious reasons for the intrusion. The objective of this research is to characterize what actually happened, to explain why it happened and to develop recommendations to reduce future water intrusion.

Fonorow,
Chandra,
08/06
Energy and Resource Efficient Communities through Systems Engineering: Building America Case Studies in Gainesville, FL
Two Gainesville, FL builder case studies are presented that detail the critical elements of a systems engineering process that has resulted in increased sales and fewer callbacks for several builders. Additional benefits these builders realized include enhanced customer satisfaction through improved comfort, improved indoor air quality and lower operating costs. Each of these builders chose to improve the performance and marketability of their homes taking different paths. These two approaches will be described.

Thomas-Rees,
Chandra,
08/06
Click the
Desired Document:
Improved Specifications for Federally Procured Ruggedized Manufactured Homes for Disaster Relief in Hot/Humid Climates
Before reconstruction can begin after a natural disaster, temporary housing is essential to stabilization of a community.  The offsite, rapid construction, and the ability to transport (and relocate) are two advantages of the ruggedized manufactured home.  This paper investigates two improved specifications, ENERGY STAR (ES) and the Building America Structural Insulated Panel (BASIP) manufactured home, that enhance the energy efficiency, sustainability, and indoor air quality and provide back up power, without compromising human health, safety or comfort. 

Parker,
Hoak,
08/06
How Much Energy Are We Using? Potential of Residential Energy Demand Feedback Devices
This paper surveys past research and describes a pilot evaluation of two low cost monitoring systems in case study homes. We also develop an evaluation protocol to use such devices to determine the relative energy intensity of various energy end uses. An identified advantage of the technology is that it provides better guidance on profitable areas to reduce household electrical demand—many of which are often unexpected.

Chasar,
Chandra,
07/06
Cooling Performance Assessment of Building America Homes
Long-term monitoring of building energy use and environmental conditions has been a strong component of FSEC research since the 1980s. Fully-automated data collection, verification, archiving and management ensure accurate logging of large amounts of data simultaneously from numerous field sites prior to being made available for analysis and display via the internet.

Beal,
Chasar,
07/06
Measured Crawlspace Conditions in a HUD-Code Home
FSEC conducted research utilizing two unconditioned, old, singlewide side-by-side manufactured homes, one with a ground cover and one with exposed dirt under it. Three different skirting options were tested, open or no skirting, perforated skirting, and solid skirting. Ambient and crawlspace dewpoints were recorded.

Martin,
Hoak,
11/05
Recommendations for High Performance Homes
This is a checklist of general recommendations for the construction of energy and resource efficient homes in a hot/humid climate.

Lubliner,
Gordon,
09/05
Heat and Non-Heat Recovery Ventilation Performance in Energy-Efficient HUD-Code Manufactured Housing
This paper presents the field testing and monitoring results of both homes’ heat recovery (HRV) and non-heat recovery (NHRV) ventilation system energy performance, based on in-situ monitoring data. Anecdotal and occupant related observations are presented, along with some conclusions.

06/05
DOE Peer Review

Parker,
Sherwin,
06/05

Development of High Efficiency Air Conditioner Condenser Fans
ASHRAE Review Document. Pending Publication and Presentation at ASHRAE Summer Meeting, June 2005.

Parker,
04/05
Theoretical Evaluation of the NightCool Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept
An evaluation has been conducted of the potential of a night sky cooling system to substantially reduce space cooling needs in homes in North American climates. The report describes the innovative residential cooling system which uses nocturnal night sky radiation from a roof integrated radiator. The report describes a detailed simulation model of the relevant physical night cooling phenomenon, examining each particular parameter which was found to have an appreciable impact on performance.

Hodgson,
Moyer,
02/05
Effect of Residential Ventilation Techniques for Hot and Humid Climates on Indoor Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds
Mechanical ventilation may be necessary to provide adequate ventilation in new houses due to the relatively low rates of infiltration achieved in new construction. However, in hot and humid climates, increased ventilation may raise indoor humidity to an undesirable level.

Lubliner,
Hadley,
12/04
Manufactured Home Performance Case Study: A Preliminary Comparison of Zero Energy and Energy Star
The Zero Energy Manufactured Home (ZEMH) Project employs innovative energy-saving technologies. A comparison (base) home was built to the Pacific Northwest's Energy Star Program requirements.

Moyer,
Chasar,
08/04
Assessing Six Residential Ventilation Techniques in Hot and Humid Climates
The addition of mechanical ventilation air to “tight” homes in hot and humid climates may adversely impact health, building durability, comfort and energy use by raising indoor humidity levels (RH) above 50%. High indoor humidity has been linked to microbial growth, building material decay, discomfort, and increased energy use (Moyer, et al, 2001).

Lombardi,
Parker
08/04
Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power Production in the United States
This paper describes a geographic evaluation of Zero Energy Home (ZEH) potential, specifically an assessment of residential roof-top solar electric photovoltaic (PV) performance around the United States and how energy produced would match up with very-efficient and super-efficient home designs.

Chasar,
Moyer,
08/04
Cold Climate Case Study; High Efficiency North Dakota Twin Homes
The Eastern Dakota Housing Alliance has completed 8 of 20 planned multi-family and single-family dwellings on Selkirk Circle in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Four twin-home (duplex) units were completed in March of 2003 (Phase I) and four more identical units were completed in February of 2004 (Phase II).

Chasar,
Moyer,
08/04
Energy Star Manufactured Homes: The Plant Certification Process
This paper outlines the Energy Star certification procedure for manufactured housing plants with the primary focus of achieving airtight ducts. Over 40 envelope and duct tests are compared with in-plant tests conducted by factory personnel.

McGinley,
Jones,
05/04
Optimizing Manufactured Housing Energy Use
Two manufactured homes located on North Carolina A&T State University’s campus in Greensboro, NC were used in a side-by-side energy consumption comparison. The more energy efficient unit shows savings of 52% for the heating, cooling, and DHW energy use. This compares well with the energy savings predicted by FSEC's Energy Gauge program of 57%, even when accounting for the warmer than usual winter experienced during the testing period.

Chandra,
05/04
Standards for Clean Air Florida Homes
These standards should result in a house with excellent indoor air quality where allergy or asthma sufferers can breathe easier. These standards are designed for new, slab on grade homes built in Florida.

Chandra,
Parker,
01/04
Alleviating Moisture Problems Hot, Humid Climate Housing
The Southeastern U.S. experiences hot, humid conditions throughout the summer months and in Florida, these conditions can prevail throughout most of the year. As a result it is not uncommon to find extensive mold, soft drywall, buckled floors, damaged ceilings and other moisture problems in new and existing site built and manufactured homes. This paper provides a brief summary of the state of the art and research needs for three areas - Manufactured (mobile) Homes, Unvented Attics and Slab-on-grade floors.

McIlvaine,
Beal,
09/03
Achieving Airtight Ducts in Manufactured Housing
Data and findings presented here were gathered between 1996 and 2003 during 39 factory visits at 24 factories of six HUD Code home manufacturers interested in improving the energy efficiency their homes. Factory observations typically showed that building a tighter duct system was the most cost effective way to improve the product’s energy efficiency.

Chandra,
Lubliner,
04/03
Technical services provided to the HUD Code and modular industry
The Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP) team is one of five Building America teams competitively funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-Building Technologies program. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida (UCF). 

Chasar,
Moyer,
08/02
Measured and Simulated Cooling Performance Comparison; Insulated Concrete Form Versus Frame Construction
Four Centex homes near Dallas, Texas were monitored. Two home models were constructed twice; one with typical wood frame construction and the other using insulated concrete forms (ICF).

Chandra,
Fonorow,
05/02
The Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership
This paper summarizes the multifaceted work being performed by BAIHP and provides specific data on 310 homes constructed in the Gainesville FL area with technical assistance from Florida Home Energy and Resources Organization.

Withers,
Chasar,
05/02
Performance and Impact from Duct Repair and Ventilation Modifications of Two Newly Constructed Manufactured Houses Located in a Hot and Humid Climate
Two nearly identical houses situated next to each other in Bossier City, Louisiana were studied in an effort to better understand moisture and cooling energy related problems in manufactured houses with low thermostat set-points during the cooling season.

Moyer,
Beal,
11/01
Moisture Problems in Manufactured Housing: Probable Cause and Cures
A number of new manufactured houses built to HUD code and located in the hot, humid Southeast are experiencing moisture problems including soft wallboards, buckled floors, damaged wood molding and mold growth. These problems do not respond to the standard service and repair strategies for water intrusion.

Chandra,
Beal,
11/01
Preventing House Dust Mite Allergens in New Housing
House dust mite allergens are a major cause of asthma. The objective of this study was preventing dust mite allergens in new houses with wall to wall carpets, NOT eradicating dust mites from infested homes.

McIlvaine,
Beal,
2001
Design and Construction of Interior Duct Systems (Brochure | Full Report - PDF 649kB)
Over the past 15 years, duct related energy use has emerged as one of the most extreme and pervasive energy wastes in American homes, accounting for as much as 40% of annual heating and cooling bills. Duct leakage and conductive heat transfer also degrade building durability, comfort, and indoor air quality by altering surface temperatures and moving air through walls cavities and vented unconditioned spaces. Read about several case studies in this report and brochure.

Lubliner,
Gordon,
09/00

Ventilation in US Manufactured Homes
Presentation at 21st Annual AIVC Conference
The Hague, Netherlands

Fuehrlein,
Chandra,
08/00
Evaluation of EnergyGauge® USA, A Residential Energy Design Software, Against Monitored Data

McIlvaine,
Beal,
11/99
Contract Report 1998-1999

Rudd,
02/99
Testing and Monitoring of the READ Project House East Lansing, Michigan

Rudd,
08/98
Design/Sizing Methodology and Economic Evaluation of Central-Fan-Integrated Supply Ventilation Systems

Rudd,
06/98
Building Testing and Monitoring at the Habitat/SIPA/APA Project in Plains, GA

Rudd,
Lstiburek,
06/98
Vented and Sealed Attics In Hot Climates

Rudd,
04/98
Trip/Testing of the Seattle Healthy House

Chandra,
Beal,
11/97
Allergy Resistant Housing
The importance of common residential allergens and irritants is reviewed. A systems oriented solution called DDAMPFIRM is discussed. Construction details and measured data are presented.

Rudd,
10/97
Coquille Indian Reservation: Testing and Monitoring

Rudd,
Katakam
08/94
Measured And Predicted Energy Savings From An Industrialized House

Rudd,
1994
Development of Moisture Storage Coatings for Enthalpy Storage Wallboard

Rudd,
1993
Phase-Change Material Wallboard for Distributed Thermal Storage in Buildings

Rudd,
Chandra,
03/93
Measured Air-Tightness and Thermal Insulation Quality of 11 Industrialized Houses

Brown,
Kellet,
05/92
Process and Energy Efficiency Review for Premier Building Systems

 

Media Recognition (1993 - 2011)


BAIHP Annual Reports

These annual reports summarize the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership.

Publications List (2000 to 2005)

A comprehensive bibliography of BAIHP Books and Book Chapters, Papers, Contract Reports, Articles in Trade Press, Popular Press, and DOE Program Newsletters, One Page Fact Sheets, and BAIHP Web Page Contents.